Quarterly Report on Inequality and Segregation in Southern California

This Report studies the changes in inequality and racial composition and segregation in each of the counties in the Southern California region over a 50 year period.  Many of the graphs display changes over a 50 year period since 1970, and some reach back even further in time.  Some key results of interest include:

  • Orange County has gone from the least racial/ethnic mixing in 1970 to the most by 2018.
  • Los Angeles County has the highest level of income inequality.
  • Ventura County has the lowest level of income inequality.
  • After rising in earlier years, income inequality in Orange County has held relatively steady since 2000.
  • Income segregation is higher in Southern California counties compared to average U.S. large counties.
  • Income segregation rose sharply in the 2000s, though it has fallen a bit since 2010.
  • Incomes are rising fastest in San Diego County since 2000. Whereas the median income in San Diego County was 10% higher than the average large county in the U.S. in 2000, it was 30% higher by 2018.
  • Incomes in Los Angeles County went from equal to the average large county in the U.S. in 2000 to 20% higher by 2018.
  • Median rents and home values are rising faster in Southern California since 2000.
  • In 2018, whereas the median income in Orange County is 50% higher than the average large county in the U.S., median rents are 90% higher, and median home values are 210% higher.

 

The maps here show which neighborhoods have experienced the largest increase in adjusted home values since 1970 for each of the counties.

 

 

 

Quarterly Report on Rising Inequality and Neighborhood Mixing in Metropolitan Areas

This Report provides new insights into some of the spatial relationships involved in both neighborhood mixing and regional inequality through an investigation of 381 metropolitan areas in the U.S. in 2010 using advanced measurement strategies and analysis methods.

The study uses a novel neighborhood unit—egohoods—to measure the degree of mixing that occurs within the neighborhoods of these metropolitan areas.  It measures mixing based on income, occupational status, and educational achievement.

We compare the level of mixing on these three dimensions across all metropolitan areas in the U.S. in 2010.

Below is a map showing the level of income mixing in neighborhoods for each of the metropolitan areas in the U.S.

Quarterly Report on Typology of Southern California neighborhood home values from 1960-2015

For many households, a home is their largest investment. In addition, for households much of their lives are lived within the neighborhood that contains their house. For these reasons, and many others,
there is naturally an interest in understanding the pattern of home value appreciation, or depreciation, across neighborhoods over time. We explore the change in home values across Southern California neighborhoods over a 50 year period.

For our analyses, we use data from 5 U.S. Censuses: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000; as well as the American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year data in 2005-09 and 2011-15. We adopt a statistical approach that allows us to create a typology of how neighborhoods change based on their home values over time. Our analyses yielded 16 different classes of neighborhoods. In this Report, we will describe these classes of neighborhoods based on their demographic composition over this period, and where they are located spatially.

Download the full report here.

Quarterly Report on Race and Income Composition of Southern California Neighborhoods

The neighborhoods we live in are important, as they are the locations of our daily activities. Nonetheless, there are differences in the characteristics of neighborhoods across any city or region. Our goal in this Report is to better understand the differences between neighborhoods. In particular, we are interested in understanding the differences in neighborhoods based on the socio-economic status of the household, as well as the racial/ethnic composition of the household. This better understanding can shed light on any possible inequalities that may exist and require policy attention. Furthermore, by taking a long-term view to this question—by studying the region from 1980 to present—we are able to provide insight on what types of changes have occurred in these neighborhoods over this period of time.

Download the full report here (.pdf)

 

Read the Report on “The neighborhoods we live in: Comparisons by race and income in Southern California”

In this Report, we are particularly interested in how economic resources and racial/ethnic status might interact to affect access to various types of neighborhoods. Thus, whereas a particular racial/ethnic group may tend to live in a neighborhood with less favorable conditions compared to another group, the question we ask is whether economic resources can diminish this gap? Specifically, do greater economic resources for racial/ethnic groups that are typically more disadvantaged (e.g., Blacks, Latinos) similarly provide them access to similar neighborhoods as they might for more advantaged groups such as White residents?

This Report therefore focuses on the characteristics of neighborhoods occupied by members of racial/ethnic groups based on different levels of income. For example, we compare the characteristics of the neighborhoods of high income white residents to those of high income black residents to high income Asian residents to high income Latino residents. Likewise, we compare the neighborhoods of different racial groups based on other income levels (very low income, low income, medium income, etc.). We also compare within racial/ethnic groups: for example, do high income Blacks live in different neighborhoods compare to low income Blacks? In short, to what extent do race and economic resources—either separately or in tandem—affect the type of neighborhoods that residents are able to access?

Download the full report here (.pdf)

Watch the August 2017 Webinar covering business relocations & housing accessibility in SoCal

Quarterly Report on Business Relocations in Southern California

Business recruitment has long been one of the most popular strategies for state and local economic development in the US, but little is understood about the precise physical location of business moves, such as the surrounding neighborhoods and how far away a firm relocates.  This Report takes a spatially precise approach toward analyzing business relocations in the seven-county Southern California region from 1997-2014. We analyze moves within cities and across city boundaries, as well as the characteristics of the neighborhoods which businesses leave – and move to.

Download the full report here (.pdf).  Register for the webinar covering this report on 8/15/2017 here.

Read the Report on Business Relocations in Southern California: Moves within and across cities and neighborhoods?

Business recruitment has long been one of the most popular strategies for state and local economic development in the US, but little is understood about the precise physical location of business moves, such as the surrounding neighborhoods and how far away a firm relocates.  This Report takes a spatially precise approach toward analyzing business relocations in the seven-county Southern California region from 1997-2014. We analyze moves within cities and across city boundaries, as well as the characteristics of the neighborhoods which businesses leave – and move to.

Explore the web app on Business Relocations in Southern California

Click here for a web mapping application that allows you to explore dynamics of business relocation across city boundaries in Southern California.   This application corresponds to MFI’s Quarterly Report “Business Relocations in Southern California: Moves within and across cities and neighborhoods?”

Quarterly Report on Relationships Between Housing, Business, and Open Space

This research explores the notion of urban accessibility, defined as the spatial separation between dwelling units and 32 types of destinations including shopping, open space, and public services. Using data on the roughly five million residential land parcels in Southern California, we use network analyses and multilevel regression modeling to determine what it is about homes that make them more or less accessible to a wide variety of destination types. In most places across the region, older homes, smaller homes, and multifamily residences have a positive relationship to accessibility; however this varies widely across counties and cities.